There are many ways to evaluate sources. The CRAPP test has been around since the mid-2000s, but doesn't work for the plethora of misinformation that is out now. For this reason, I've included other methods of evaluating information on this page--Newseum's E.S.C.A.P.E Junk News, the Sift technique, and Act Up!
Need to E.S.C.A.P.E. junk news? Use the six ways below to evaluate information. Created by NewseumEd, who provides "free learning tools on media literacy and our First Amendment Freedoms."
The SIFT method of media literacy and evaluation, created by Michael A. Caulfield of Washington State University, another great way to evaluate information. He has created a free online set of lessons and activities called Check, Please that is perfect for teens and adults. There are 5 lessons, each taking around 30 minutes to complete.
SIFT stands for:
Read more about Caulfield's ideas at his blog, Hapgood.
If you want to judge whether a source is reliable, take the CRAAP Test. This is a series of questions about the source's Currency, Relevance, Authority, Accuracy, and Purpose.
Not living up to all of these criteria doesn't automatically make a source "bad." But a source should meet most of these criteria, and it's important to recognize when a source doesn't pass the CRAAP Test.
The ACT UP Method - Created by Dawn Stahura, a research and instruction librarian at Salem State University
Author - Who wrote the resource? Who are they? Background information matters. Why did the author write it? What's the intent?
Currency - When was this resource written? When was it published? Does this resource fit into the currency of your topic?
Truth - How accurate is this information? Can you verify any of the claims in other sources? Are there typos and spelling mistakes? Can you verify the claims made? If the language seems wild or scandalous with lots of !!!!, don't use it.
Unbiased - There is no such thing as unbiased since we all have them. But is this article impartial? Are they upfront with their bias/point-of-view?Who funded the research? Are their conflicts of interest? Is the information presented to sway the audience to a particular point of view? Are you only selecting items that confirm your OWN biases?
Privilege - Check the privilege of the author(s). Are they all white men? Are they the only folx who might write or publish on this topic? Who is missing in this conversation? Critically evaluate the subject terms associated with each resource you found. How are they described? What are the inherent biases? What can you find in open access journals, blogs, or zines that are more inclusive?
Use Stahura's Infographic to find out more information about each step or check out her research guide about Act Up! Want to read how the Act Up! evolved out of CRAAP? Stahura's explains her thought process here: Stahura, D. (2018). ACT UP for evaluating sources: Pushing against privilege. College & Research Libraries News, 79(10), 551. doi:https://doi.org/10.5860/crln.79.10.551
Don't forget about evaluating "fake news" either! Everyone talks about it, but did you know that your social media feeds are full of fake news? Take a look at the documents below for tips on identifying fake news.
Types of Fake News: Parody/Joke Sites, News Imposter Sites, Fake News Sites, Sites that Contain Some Fake News
Still have questions about fake news? Take a look at this article by Steve Inskeep from NPR: "A Finder's Guide To Facts."