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Citing Sources: APA 7 References

Guides for citing sources in MLA and APA format

Reference Overview

The examples on this page don't show hanging indent, thanks to dynamic website formatting. Don't forget to double space, use hanging indents, etc., on your reference page.

All APA reference list entries contain four main components: author, date, title, and source. Those components are organized as follows:

Author. (Date). Title. Source.

If you are unable to locate components for a reference, the APA Style website has a page on Missing Reference Information.

There are two format patterns: italic title and italic source. APA has more information on this with A Tale of Two Reference Formats.

Reference Components - Read this box 1st! Then click on an example to the left or scroll down.

The first component in every APA reference is the author. Sometimes an author can be a corporation or group. 

List the full last name, a comma, and then the initials of the author, with a space between the initials. Do not list the full first or middle name of an author. Do not use courtesy or academic titles (Dr., Sir) in your citations. Do include suffixes such as Jr., Sr., III, etc. Some authors use non-standard capitalization. Retain that capitalization.

  • Louisa May Alcott  Alcott, L. M.
  • Leonardo da Vinci  da Vinci, L.
  • Jean-Luc Lebrun  Lebrun, J.-L.

Two Authors:

Smith, J., & Miller, W. C. (Date). Title. Source.

(Smith & Miller, 2009)

Three to Twenty Authors:

Smith, J., Jones, B. E., Brown, K. E., & Doe, J. (Date). Title. Source.

List all authors in the reference; however, in-text citations will include the first author's name only, followed by et al.

(Smith et al., 2009)

21+ Authors:

Include the first 19 authors in the reference, then three ellipsis points (. . .), and then the last author (there is no ampersand). In the in-text citation, only include the first author and add et al.

Smith, J., Jones, B. E., Brown, K. E., Doe, J., Chan, L., Garcia, S. M., White, C-G., Fernández, J., Ahmed, A. J., Zhào, L., Cohen, D., Watanabe, K., Kim, K., Del Rosario, J., Yilmaz, P. K., Nguyễn, T., Wilson, T. H., Wang, W., Kahale, A. ... Zhang, Z. Z. (Date). Title. Source.

(Smith et al., 2009)

Corporate Author

Some resources may be attributed to a group or organization, instead of a specific person or persons. In this case, give the name of the group or organization, capitalized as needed. You may abbreviate the organization to a common abbreviation beginning with the second in-text citation.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2019, October 3). Outbreak of lung injury associated with e-cigarette use, or vaping. Retrieved October 8, 2019, from https://www.cdc.gov/tobacco/basic_information/e-cigarettes/severe-lung-disease.html

First In-Text Citation:

(Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC], 2019)

Subsequent In-Text Citations:

(CDC, 2019)

For government authors that may have multiple departments as a hierarchy (for example,U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health, National Library of Medicine), you should use the directly responsible agency.

National Library of Medicine. (n.d.). A brief history of the NLM. https://www.nlm.nih.gov/about/briefhistory.html

(National Library of Medicine, n.d.)

Book Editors

If a book is compiled by an editor (usually specified on the cover or title page), list the names as usual, but add (Ed.) or (Eds.) after the names, to signify editor or editors. This abbreviation is not included in the in-text citation.

Forrester, D. A. (Ed.). (2016). Nursing's greatest leaders: A history of activism. Springer.

(Forrester, 2016)

No Author

If there is no listed author or editor, start your reference with the title, place the date after the title, and continue the reference as normal. Remember that authors can be a company, organization, or group author, and that should be used as the author if provided. Check very carefully to ensure that there is no organization that can be used as the author!

Template

Title. (Date). Source.

Examples

Oxford English dictionary (2nd ed.). (1989). Clarendon Press.

Appeal to authority. (n.d.). Logical Fallacies. https://www.logicalfallacies.org/appeal-to-authority.html

For in-text citations, use the title of the item, followed by the date. If the title is long, you may abbreviate it to the first few words. Book titles are italicized; journal or website articles are put in quotations.

(Oxford English Dictionary, 1989).

("Appeal to Authority," n.d.)

If the item is expressly attributed to "Anonymous," list that as the author:

Anonymous. (2006). Go ask Alice. Simon Pulse.

(Anonymous, 2006)

Most sources (such as books, journal articles, and films) only require the year. For magazines, newsletters, newspapers, social media, YouTube videos, blog posts, etc., provide the full date.

Valinsky, J. (2019, October 8). Instagram dark mode is here. CNN. https://www.cnn.com/2019/10/08/tech/instagram-dark-mode-trnd/index.html

In-text citations, however, will only include the year.

(Valinksy, 2019)

No Date

If an item does not have a discernible date, you may use n.d. as the date (for no date); do not simply leave out the date. For webpages, do not use a general copyright date given for the website. Look for a specific created, updated, or modified date for the page or document you are using.

Santa Fe College. (n.d.). Fifty years to first. https://www.sfcollege.edu/about/50/

(Santa Fe College, n.d.)

Same Author/Date

If you have two or more distinct works by the same author and published in the same year, differentiate them with letters. Organize these references by the title element.

Rowling, J. K. (1999a). Harry Potter and the chamber of secrets. Arthur A. Levine.

(Rowling, 1999a)

Rowling, J. K. (1999b). Harry Potter and the prisoner of Azkaban. Arthur A. Levine.

(Rowling, 1999b)

Republished Works

If you are citing a classic work that has been reprinted or republished, you can include the original date at the end of the reference. Include both dates in the in-text citation.

Freud, S. (2005). Civilization and its discontents. Norton. (Original work published 1930)

(Freud, 1930/2005)

Retrieval Dates

If the resources you are citing may change substantially before readers can access it, you may add a retrieval date prior to the URL. Examples include wikis, dictionary entries, Twitter profiles, webpages that update frequently, etc.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2019, October 3). Outbreak of lung injury associated with e-cigarette use, or vaping. Retrieved October 8, 2019, from https://www.cdc.gov/tobacco/basic_information/e-cigarettes/severe-lung-disease.html

(Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2019)

Capitalization

APA requires you to only capitalize certain words in a title. You should capitalize the following:

  • The first word of the title
  • The first word of the subtitle, usually directly after a colon :
  • Any proper nouns (places, people, organizations, etc.)
  • All significant words in a journal/website title
Examples of Correct Capitalization:
  • Aces high: The heroic saga of the two top-scoring American aces of World War II
  • Can’t remember what I forgot: The good news from the front lines of memory research
  • The elements of library research: What every student needs to know
  • The FBI: A history
  • Introduction to research in the health sciences
  • Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs [journal title]
  • The Oxford guide to library research
  • Preparing research articles
  • Publication manual of the American Psychological Association

APA requires you to italicize the titles of stand-alone works, like books, journals, films, reports and webpages. If you are citing something that is part of a bigger work, you do not italicize the titles of book chapters, reference book entries, and articles from journals, magazines, or newspapers.

Format Clarification

If the information you are citing is not a routine format, use square brackets after the title to clarify. Common examples include:

  • [Video]
  • [Tweet]
  • [App]
  • [Painting]

CrashCourse. (2019, September 27). Natural language processing: Crash course AI #7 [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oi0JXuL19TA

(Crash Course, 2017)

Edition/Volume Clarification

For some books, you will need to add the edition or the volume used after the title, in parentheses.

American Psychological Association. (2020). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (7th ed.). https://doi.org/10.1037/0000165-000

(American Psychological Association, 2020)

No Title

In very rare cases, you may be using a source without a specific title. This may be something like a social media post, untitled artwork, or a Google map. In the title component, include a description in brackets; try to include the medium in the description if possible.

Google. (n.d.). [Google Maps directions for driving from Gainesville, FL, to Miami, FL]. Retrieved October 8, 2019, from https://goo.gl/maps/jkV9HNbBw6nx9iLc8

The source for a book is the publisher. Use the publisher name on the title page of the book. The source for an article typically includes the journal, volume, issue, page numbers, and DOI. Spell out the entire journal title; do not abbreviate it. The journal title and volume should be italicized. If you are missing any of this information, omit it. This example does not have an issue number or a DOI.

Tremblay, M. S., Inman, J. W., & Willms, J. D. (2000). The relationship between physical activity, self-esteem, and academic achievement in 12-year-old children. Pediatric Exercise Science, 12, 312–323.

(Tremblay et al., 2000)

If an article is freely available online and does not have a DOI, you may choose to add the URL to the full-text.

Rosener, A., Frigo, E., Ponischil, S., Bélanger, A., Rander, J., & Salazer, E. (2019, September 18). Leading from the center: Reimagining feedback conversations at an academic library. In the Library with a Lead Pipe. http://www.inthelibrarywiththeleadpipe.org/2019/reimagining-feedback/

(Rosener et al., 2019)

Locating DOIs

APA requires you to provide DOIs if available when citing a journal article. DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier. DOIs serve as a permanent link to electronic content. Because some databases generate dynamic links (i.e., links that change each time you access an article), it is impossible to use these links to direct someone to an article. If an article has a DOI, you can give that information and easily direct readers to your references. DOIs are commonly found in the database record, the journal's page for the article, or on the first page of the article itself. A DOI will be a string of numbers and slashes (possibly with letters) that begins with 10.

DOI in a database record

DOI in a PDF of a journal article

DOI on a journal homepage

Once you have a DOI, you can use a DOI resolver to access the article. There are several resolvers, but the DOI.org is recommended. Input the entire DOI, and you will be directed to the main article page.

DOI.org DOI resolver

Books & eBooks

The 7th edition of APA does not differentiate between the format of the books, print or electronic. Cite both the same way. If you have an open-access eBook, you may provide the URL at the end, provided it directly takes you to the full text without logging in.

Template

Author, A. A. (Year). Title of book. Publisher. https://doi.org/XXXXXX

Examples

George, M. W. (2008). The elements of library research: What every student needs to know. Princeton University Press.

(George, 2008)

Kleiser, G. (2008). Fifteen thousand useful phrases. Funk & Wagnalls; Project Gutenberg. http://www.gutenberg.org/etext/18362 (Original work published 1917)

(Kleiser, 1917/2008)

Samanez-Larkin, G. R. (Ed.). (2019). The aging brain: Functional adaptation across adulthood. American Psychological Association. https://doi.org/10.1037/0000143-000

(Samanez-Larkin, 2019)

Note: When citing in-text, it can be difficult if your eBook does not have a page number (most PDF books do). In this case, try to get as specific as possible by mentioning chapter, section, and paragraph numbers.

One of the author's main points is that "people don't rise from nothing" (Gladwell, 2008, Chapter 1, Section 2, para. 5).

Source: Publication Manual, 10.2 (examples 20-26); Book References [APA Style]

Template

Editor, A. A. (Ed.). (Year). Title of book. Publisher.

Example

Johnson, C. L., & Tuite, C. (Eds.). (2009). A companion to Jane Austen. Wiley-Blackwell.

(Johnson & Tuite, 2009)

Source: Publication Manual, 10.2 (example 25)

Template

Author, A. A. (Date). Title of book (xth ed.). Publisher.

Example

Rottenberg, A. T. (2003). Elements of argument: A text and reader (7th ed.). Bedford/St. Martin's.

(Rottenberg, 2003)

Source: Publication Manual, 10.2 (example 31)

Template

Author of Chapter, A. A. & Author, B. B. (Year). Title of chapter or entry. In A. Editor, B. Editor, & C. Editor (Eds.), Title of book (pp. xxx–xxx). Publisher.

Example

Shephered, S. (1988). Shakespeare's private drawer: Shakespeare and homosexuality. In G. Holderness (Ed.), The Shakespeare myth (pp. 96–110). Manchester University Press.

(Shephered, 1988).

Source: Publication Manual, 10.3 (examples 38-46); Edited Book Chapter References [APA Style]

Whole Anthology

Template

Editor, A. A. (Ed.). (Year). Title of book. Publisher.

Example

Grene, D. & Lattimore, R. (Eds.). (1959). The complete Greek tragedies. University of Chicago Press.

(Grene & Lattimore, 1959)


Work in an Anthology

Template

Author, A. A. (Year). Title of work. In A. A. Editor (Ed.), Title of book (pp. XX–XX)Publisher. (Original work published Year)

Example

Ibsen, Henrik. (2002). A doll's house. In R. S. Gwynn (Ed.), Drama: A pocket anthology (2nd ed., pp. 209–277). Longman. (Original work published 1879)

(Ibsen, 1879/2002)

Source: Publication Manual, 10.2 (example 34) and 10.3 (example 46)

Template

Author, A. A. (Year). Entry name. In Title of book (xth ed., p. XX). Publisher.

Example

Johnson, W. J. (2009). Gotra. In A dictionary of Hinduism (p. 131). Oxford University Press.

(Johnson, 2009)

Source: Dictionary Entry References [APA Style]

Always look carefully for a byline/author; this is usually at either the beginning or the end of an entry.

With Entry Author

Template

Author, A. A. (Year). Title of entry. In A. Editor (Ed.), Title of reference work (xth ed., Vol. xx, pp. xxx–xxx). Publisher.

Example

Hodges, W. (2006). First-order logic. In D. M. Borchert (Ed.), The encyclopedia of philosophy (2nd ed., Vol. 3, pp. 639–659). Thomson Gale.

(Hodges, 2006)


No Entry Author

Template

Title of entry. (Year). In A. Editor (Ed.), Title of reference work (xth ed., Vol. xx, pp. xxx–xxx). Publisher.

Example

Southeast Asia. (2003). In The new encyclopaedia Britannica: Macropedia (15th ed., Vol. 27, pp. 711–794). Encyclopaedia Britannica.

("Southeast Asia," 2003)

Source: Publication Manual, 10.3 (examples 47-48)

Template

Author, A. A. (Year). Title of entry. In A. Editor (Ed.), Title of reference work (xx ed.). Website. http://xxxxx

Example 1: Individual Author

Masolo, D. (2006). African sage philosophy. In E. N. Zalta (Ed.), The Stanford encyclopedia of philosophy (Fall 2008 ed.). Stanford University. http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/african-sage/

(Masolo, 2006)

Example 2: Group Author

United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. (n.d.) Antisemitism. In Holocaust encyclopedia. Retrieved October 7, 2019, from https://encyclopedia.ushmm.org/content/en/article/antisemitism

(United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, n.d.)

Note: If the author is the same as the website, omit the website component. If an encyclopedia is continuously updated and does not have an archived version, include the retrieval date.

Source: Publication Manual, 10.3 (examples 47-48)

Template

Author, A. A. (Year). Foreign title [Translated title]. Publisher.

Example

Paz, O. (1959). El laberinto de la soledad [The labyrinth of solitude]. Fondo de Cultura Económica.

(Paz, 1959)

Source: Publication Manual, 10.2 (examples 27-28)

Only include the illustrator if the pictures are essential to understanding content (e.g., picture books, graphic novels) and if they are listed on the front cover.

Template

Author, A. A. (Year). Title of book (B. B. Illustrator, Illus.). Publisher.

Example

Napoli, D. J. (2014). Hands and hearts (A. Bates, Illus.). Abrams Books for Young Readers.

(Napoli, 2014)

Source: Children’s Book or Other Illustrated Book References [APA Style]

Religious works are considered to not have a specific author.

Template

Title of religious work (A. A. Translator, Trans.). (Year). Publisher. (Original work published Year)

Examples

The Green Bible: New Revised Standard Version. (2008). HarperOne.

(The Green Bible, Luke 12:49)

The Qur'an (M. A. S. Abdel Haleem, Trans.) (2010). Oxford University Press

(The Qur'an, 5:3–4)

Note: Use chapter/verses for in-text citations as opposed to page numbers.

Sources: Publication Manual, 9.42 and 10.2 (example 35); Religious Work References [APA Style]

Article Examples

Online Article with DOI

Template

Author, A. A., Author B. B., & Author, C. C. (Year). Title of article. Title of Journal, Volume(Issue), pages–pages. https://doi.org/XXXXXXXXXXX

Example 1:

Reed, M. J., Kennett, D. J., Lewis, T., Lund-Lucas, E., Stallberg, C., & Newbold, I. L. (2009). The relative effects of university success courses and individualized interventions for students with learning disabilities. Higher Education Research & Development28(4), 385–400. https://doi.org/10.1080/07294360903067013

(Reed et al., 2009)

Example 2: Article with an Article Number

Omit the page numbers and use the article number in its place.

Derry, K. (2018). Myth and monstrosity: Teaching indigenous films. Journal of Religion & Film, 22(3), Article 7. https://digitalcommons.unomaha.edu/jrf/

(Derry, 2018)


Online Article Without DOI/Print Article

Template

Author, A. A., Author B. B., & Author, C. C. (Year). Title of article. Title of Journal, Volume(Issue), pages–pages.

Only include a URL if it takes you to the full text of the article without logging in.

Example

Husain, A. N., Colby, T. V., Ordóñez, N. G., Krausz, T., Borczuk, A., Cagle, P. T, Chirieac, L. R., Churg, A., Galeateau-Salle, F., Gibbs, A. R., Gown, A. M., Hammar, S. P., Lizky, A. A., Roggli, V. L., Travis, W. D., & Wick, M. R. (2009). Guidelines for pathologic diagnosis of malignant mesothelioma. Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine, 133(8), 1317–1331.

(Husain et al., 2009)

Note: Do not include the name of a database, except for very rare occasions where the content is exclusive to the database. See Other Database Content for more guidance.

Sources: Publication Manual, 10.1 (examples 1-6); Journal Article References [APA Style]

Print & Database Articles

Template

Author, A. A. (Year, Month Day). Title of article. Newspaper Title, pages–pages.

Example

Clark, A. (2009, August 9). Apartment glut good for students, bad for owners. The Gainesville Sun, 1A, 9A.

(Clark, 2009)


Online Articles from Website

Template

Author, A. A. (Year, Month Day). Title of article. Title of Newspaper. http://xxxxx

Examples

Associated Press. (2019, October 7). Unions sue USDA seeking to halt new pork processing rule. The New York Times. https://www.nytimes.com/aponline/2019/10/07/us/ap-us-pork-slaughter-changes.html

(Associated Press, 2019)

Johnson, K. (2017, January 16). Rwanda takes vital baby steps for preschool education. East African. https://www.theeastafrican.co.ke/Rwanda/News/Rwanda-takes-vital-baby-steps-for-pre-school-education/1433218-3519704-bi37kl/index.html

(Johnson, 2017)

Source: Publication Manual, 10.1 (example 16); Newspaper Article References [APA Style]

Print

Template

Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (Year, Month Day). Title of article. Title of Magazine, Volume(Issue, if available), pages–pages.

Example

Erim, K. T. (1967, August). Ancient Aphrodisias and its marble treasures. National Geographic132(2), 280–294.

(Erim, 1967)


Online

If you are unable to find the volume/issue, omit that component.

Template

Author, A. A. (Year, Month Day). Title of article. Title of Magazine, Volume(Issue). http://xxxxx

Examples

Tizon, A. (2017, June). My family's slave. The Atlantic319(5). https://www.theatlantic.com/magazine/archive/2017/06/lolas-story/524490/

(Tizon, 2017)

The supermarket of the future. (2017, May 23). Consumer Reports. https://www.consumerreports.org/grocery-stores-supermarkets/supermarket-of-the-future/

("The Supermarket," 2017)

Source: Publication Manual, 10.1 (example 15); Magazine Article References [APA Style]

Book Review

Template

Reviewer, A. A. (Year). Title of review [Review of the book Title of book, by B. B. Author]. Source information.

Example

King, N. (2009). The psychology of personal constructs [Review of the book George Kelly: The psychology of personal constructs, by T. Butt]. History & Philosophy of Psychology, 11(1), 44–47. http://www.bps.org.uk/publications/member-network-publications/member-publications/history-and-philosophy-psychology

(King, 2009)


Film or Video Review

Template

Reviewer, A. A. (Year). Title of review [Review of the film Film, by A. A. Director, Dir.]. Source information.

Example

Schickel, R. (2006). The power of Babel [Review of the film Babel, by A. G. Iñárritu, Dir.]. Time, 168(18), 70.

(Schickel, 2006)

Source: Publication Manual, 10.7 (examples 67-68)

Only use this template for items in library databases that are exclusive content to the database (i.e. are not found outside the database). Databases include A to Z the World and some resources in Opposing Viewpoints and Health and Wellness. Otherwise, use the guidelines for journal or newspaper articles.

Template

Author, A. A. (Year). Title of article. Database Name. https://doi.org/XXXXXXXXXXX OR http://xxxxx

Example

Kirby, J. (n.d.). Austria: The business experience. A to Z the World. Retrieved October 7, 2019, from http://www.atoztheworld.com/

(Kirby, n.d.)

Sources: Publication Manual, 10.1 (examples 13-14); APA Style: Database Information in References

For online journal articles that are published online before they are available in print.

Example

Capone, L. J., Albert, N. M., Bena, J. F., & Tang, A. S. (2012). Serious fall injuries in hospitalized patients with and without cancer. Journal of Nursing Care Quality. Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1097/NCQ.0b013e3182679056

(Capone at al., 2012)

Source: Publication Manual, 10.1 (example 7)

Media Examples

If you are citing a direct quotation from a film, you can use the time stamp in place of a page number within the in-text citation.

Template

Director, A. A. (Director). (Year). Title of video [Film]. Production Company.

Examples

Bier, S. (Director). (2018). Bird box [Film]. Netflix; Chris Morgan Productions; Dylan Clark Productions.

(Bier, 2018, 16:30)

Guggenheim, D. (Director). (2006). An inconvenient truth [Film]. Lawrence Bender Productions; Participant Productions.

(Guggenheim, 2006, 23:13)

Haggis, P. (Director). (2004). Crash [Film; director's cut on DVD]. Bob Yari Productions; DEJ Productions; Blackfriars Bridge; Harris Company; ApolloProScreen Productions; Bull's Eye Entertainment.

(Haggis, 2004)

Note: If the edition of the film you used is important, such as a special extended edition, include that in the brackets.

Source: Publication Manual, 10.12 (examples 84-85); Film and Television References [APA Style]

Use this for videos posted on websites or blogs, such as YouTube, TED, a news website, etc. If you are citing a direct quotation from a video, you can use the time stamp in place of a page number within the in-text citation (see Example 1).

Template

Author, A. A. [username]. (Year, Month Day). Title of video [Video]. Website. http://xxxxx

Example 1: Full Name

Jones, P. [patrickJMT]. (2009, October 24). Easily memorize the unit circle [Video]. YouTube. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=03McKEg9ASA

(Jones, 2009, 1:15)

Example 2: User Name Only

Vercamath. (2011, July 25). Parallel universes explained [Video]. YouTube. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GWaB3SksOQU

(Vercamath, 2011)

Example 3: TED Talk

Gavagan, E. (2012, April). A story about knots and surgeons [Video]. TED Conferences. https://www.ted.com/talks/ed_gavagan_a_story_about_knots_and_surgeons

(Gavagan, 2012)

TED. (2016, August 30). Suzanne Simard: How trees talk to each other [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Un2yBgIAxYs

(TED, 2016)

Note: If citing from the TED website, list the speaker as the author. If citing from YouTube, list TED (or the account) as the author and include the speaker's name in the title.

Sources: Publication Manual, 9.8 and 10.12 (examples 88 and 90); YouTube Video ReferencesTED Talk References [APA Style]

The library database Films on Demand may contain different types of videos, including full films and television episodes. You will usually not be able to identify a director for a video; begin with the title in that case. Identify as many of the components as you are able.

Film Template

Director, A. A. (Director). (Year). Title of video [Film]. Production Company.

Title of video [Film]. (Year). Production Company.

Film Example

My brain and I [Film]. (2012). ORF.

(My Brain, 2012)

Episode Template

Title of episode (Season X, Episode X) [TV series episode]. (Year). In Title of series. Production Company.

Television Example

The Vikings, from Paris to Normandy (Season 3) [TV series episode]. (2019). In Butterfly effect. Balanga.

("The Vikings," 2019)

Publication Manual, 10.2 (example 84)

Template

Writer, A. A. (Writer), & Director, B. B. (Director). (Year, Month Day). Title of episode (Season X, Episode X) [TV series episode]. In C. C. Executive Producer (Executive Producer), Title of TV Show. Production Company.

Example

Moffat, S. (Writer) & Macdonald, H. (Director). (2007, June 9). Blink (Season 3, Episode 10) [TV series episode]. In R. T. Davies (Executive Producer), Doctor who. BBC Studios.

(Moffat & Macdonald, 2007)

Source: Publication Manual, 10.12 (example 87); Film and Television References [APA Style]

Template

Writer, A. A. (Writer), & Director, B. B. (Director). (Year, Month Day). Title of episode (Season X, Episode X) [TV series episode]. In C. C. Executive Producer (Executive Producer), Title of TV Show. Production Company.

Example

Moffat, S. (Writer) & Macdonald, H. (Director). (2007, June 9). Blink (Season 3, Episode 10) [TV series episode]. In R. T. Davies (Executive Producer), Doctor who. BBC Studios.

(Moffat & Macdonald, 2007)

Source: Publication Manual, 10.12 (example 87); Film and Television References [APA Style]

Only cite an interview if it is retrievable. If it is a personal interview that is not able to be accessed by the reader, follow the guidelines for personal communication.

Template

Interviewee, A. A. (Year, month day interviewed). Title of interview [Interview]. Website. http://xxxxx

Example

Miller, C. (2019, October 7). Chanel Miller - Turning her pain into a rallying cry with Know My Name - Extended interview [Interview]. Comedy Central. http://www.thedailyshow.com/watch/tue-september-18-2012/salman-rushdie

(Miller, 2019)

Source: Publication Manual, 10.13 (example 95)

Template

Host, A. A. (Host). (Year, Month Day). Episode title (No. XX)  [Audio podcast episode]. In Title of podcast. Production Company. http://xxxxx

Example

Mars, R. (Host). (2019, September 30). The help-yourself city (No. 375) [Audio podcast episode]. In 99% invisible. Radiotopia. https://99percentinvisible.org/episode/the-help-yourself-city/

(Mars, 2019)

You may also cite the transcript of a podcast episode.

Vedantam, S. (2019, July 22). Facts aren't enough: The psychology of false beliefs [Audio podcast transcript]. In Hidden brain. NPR. https://www.npr.org/transcripts/743195213

(Vedantam, 2019)

Source: Publication Manual, 10.13 (examples 93-94); Transcript of an Audiovisual Work References [APA Style]

Template

Artist, A. A. (Year). Title of song [Song]. On Title of album. Label. (Original work published Year).

Artist, A. A. (Year). Title of album [Album]. Label. (Original work published Year).

Example

Destiny's Child. (1999). Say my name [Song]. On The writing's on the wall. Columbia.

(Destiny's Child, 1999, 0:43)

Joel, B. (1978). 52nd street. Columbia.

(Joel, 1978)

Sources: Publication Manual, 10.13 (examples 91-92)

Template

Composer, A. A., & Librettist, B. B. (Year). Title of score [Type of Score]. Website. http://xxxxx (Original work published XXXX)

Example

Beethoven, L. van. (1810). Fur Elise [Musical score]. 8Notes. http://www.8notes.com/scores/571.asp?ftype=gif

(Beethoven, 1810)

Source: Musical Score References [APA Style]

Template

Author (Year). Title of image [Photograph]. Website. http://xxxxx

Example

Science in HD. (n.d.). Living large [Photograph]. Unsplash. https://unsplash.com/photos/te465W47_b8

(Science in HD, n.d.)

Source: Clip Art or Stock Image References [APA Style]

Internet Resources Examples

Template

Author, A. A. (Year). Title of brochure or fact sheet [Type]. Website. http://xxxxx.

If the author and website names are the same, omit the website component

Example

Cancer Research UK. (2014). World cancer factsheet [Fact sheet]. https://www.cancerresearchuk.org/sites/default/files/cs_report_world.pdf

(Cancer Research UK, 2014)

Nissan. (n.d.). 2020 Altima [Brochure]. Retrieved March 10, 2020, from https://www.nissanusa.com/content/dam/Nissan/us/vehicle-brochures/2020/2020-nissan-altima-brochure-en.pdf

(Nissan, n.d.)

Source: Fact Sheet ReferencesBrochure References [APA Style]

Template

Author, A. A. [@username]. (Year, Month Day). Text of caption [Photograph(s)/Video(s)]. Instagram. http://xxxxx

Example

Tyree Library [@tyreelibrary]. (2018, October 12). Check out our spooky display for October! All of the books and movies on display are available for checkout [Photograph]. Instagram. https://www.instagram.com/p/Bo1uWOgAZ6b/

(Tyree Library, 2018)

Source: Publication Manual 10.15 (examples 107-108); Instagram References [APA Style]

Twitter Profile

Template

Author, A. A. [@twittername]. (n.d.). Tweets [Twitter profile]. Retrieved Month Day, Year, from http://xxxxx

Example

Tyson, N. G. [@neiltyson]. (n.d.). Tweets [Twitter profile]. Twitter. Retrieved October 8, 2019, from https://twitter.com/neiltyson

(Tyson, 2019)


Tweet

If you cite a particular post ('tweet'), you must cite it in the References page; you can follow the example and guidelines below.

  • Include the Twitter username as written (be it a name or an organization).
  • You do not need to include the time, simply the day and year.
  • Since tweets are limited to 140 characters, you should include the entire text, including URLs.
  • The URL should be for the specific tweet, not the entire feed.
  • Replicate emojis if possible.
  • If an image or video are included, add square brackets before the Tweet indication.

Template

Author, A. A.. [@twittername]. (Year, Month Day). Full text of tweet [Image attached/Thumbnail with link attached/etc] [Tweet]. Twitter. http://xxxxx

Example

Obama, B. [@BarackObama]. (2009, July 15). Launched American Graduation Initiative to help additional 5 mill. Americans graduate college by 2020: http://bit.ly/gcTX7 [Tweet]. Twitter. http://twitter.com/BarackObama/status/2651151366

(Obama, 2009)

Tyson, N. G. [@neiltyson]. (2019, July 15). I love the smell of the universe in the morning [Image attached] [Tweet]. Twitter. https://twitter.com/neiltyson/status/1179714452553420802

(Tyson, 2019)

Source: Publication Manual 10.15 (examples 103-104); Twitter References [APA Style]

Facebook Page

Template

Author. (n.d.). Home [Facebook page]. Facebook. Retrieved Month Day, Year, from http://xxxxx

Example

Florida Memes. (n.d.). Home [Facebook page]. Facebook. Retrieved October 8, 2019, from https://www.facebook.com/morefloridamemes/

(Florida Memes, n.d.)


Specific Posting On Facebook Profile or Page

If you cite a particular post, you must cite it in the References page; you can follow the example and guidelines below.

  • Include the author name as written (name or an organization).
  • You do not need to include the time, simply the day and year.
  • Provide the entire posting, up to the first 20 words.
  • Include the URL of the specific post if possible.

Template

Author. (Year, Month Day). Text of Facebook post, up to 20 words [Image attached] [Status update/Video/Infographic/Image]. Facebook. http://xxxxx

Example

CNN. (2013, October 22). Could a mouse's back potentially hold the cure for baldness? A breakthrough may be on the horizon, researchers say. http://on.cnn.com/1cTftYk [Thumbnail link] [Status update]. Facebook. https://www.facebook.com/cnn/posts/10152027847166509

(CNN, 2013)

Source: Publication Manual, 10.15 (examples 105-106); Facebook References [APA Style]

Please note: Wikipedia is a good resource for learning about a topic, but it is usually not an acceptable source to cite in a paper or research project for a class at Santa Fe College. This is due to the fact that it can be very unreliable and is not considered a reputable source.

Template

Title of entry. (Year, Month Day). In Wiki Name. http://xxxxx

Example 1: Wikipedia

Constitution of the United States. (2019, October 7). In Wikipedia. https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Constitution_of_the_United_States&oldid=920036236

("Constitution," 2019).

Note: Provide the link to the archived version of the entry you use. Click View history and the time/date corresponding to the entry version you used.

Example 2: Another Wiki

Greek mythology. (2008). In Citizendium. Retrieved August 12, 2019, from http://en.citizendium.org/wiki/Greek_mythology

("Greek Mythology," 2008).

Note: If there is no link to an archival version of the page, provide the retrieval date that you accessed the entry.

Source: Publication Manual, 10.3 (example 49); Wikipedia Entry References [APA Style]

Only cite an interview if it is retrievable. If it is a personal interview that is not able to be accessed by the reader, follow the guidelines for personal communication.

Template

Interviewee, A. A. (Year, month day interviewed). Title of interview [Interview]. Website. http://xxxxx

Example

Miller, C. (2019, October 7). Chanel Miller - Turning her pain into a rallying cry with Know My Name - Extended interview [Interview]. Comedy Central. http://www.thedailyshow.com/watch/tue-september-18-2012/salman-rushdie

(Miller, 2019)

Source: Publication Manual, 10.13 (example 95)

Template

Author, A. A. (Role). (Year). Title of map [Map]. Website. http://xxxxx

Example

Wise, G. D. (Cartographer). (1857). Preliminary survey of the mouth of the Apalachicola River, Florida [Map]. University of Florida. http://www.uflib.ufl.edu/maps/MAPFLL018.JPG

(Wise, 1857)

Source: Publication Manual, 10.14 (example 100)

Template

Reviewer, A. A. (Year). Title of review [Review of the film Film, by A. A. Director, Dir.]. Website. http://xxxxx

Example

Barsanti, C. (2011). The Muppets [Review of the film The Muppets, by J Bobin, Dir.]. Filmcritic. http://www.filmcritic.com/reviews/2011/the-muppets/

(Barsanti, 2011)

Source: Publication Manual, 10.7 (examples 67-68)

Template

Author, A. A. or Organization. (Year). Title of press release [Press release]. http://xxxxx

Example

Santa Fe College. (2010). Film production classes and casting agent coming to SF [Press release]. http://news.sfcollege.edu/read.php/2010/09/03/film-production-classes-and-casting-agent-coming-to-sf.html

(Santa Fe College, 2010)

Source: Publication Manual, 10.4 (example 59); Press Release References [APA Style]

Template

Author, A. A. (Year). Title of page. Website. http://xxxxx

General copyright dates are not sufficient to use as the publication date. If no creation or publication date is given, use n.d. If the author and website are the same, omit the website.

Example 1: Author, No Date

Corcodilos, N. (n.d.). Keep your salary under wraps. Ask the Headhunter. http://www.asktheheadhunter.com/hasalary.htm

(Corcodilos, n.d.)

Example 2: Corporate Author

U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs. (2010). Facing down PTSD, vet is now soaring high. http://www.mentalhealth.va.gov/featureArticle_Feb.asp

(U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs, 2010)

Example 3: Multiple Pages from One Website

If you are using multiple pages from one website that all have the same author and date, differentiate the dates with letters. Be sure that the citations are listed alphabetically by webpage title.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2014a). Be safe after a hurricane. http://emergency.cdc.gov/disasters/hurricanes/be-safe-after.asp

(Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2014a)

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2014b). Make a plan. http://emergency.cdc.gov/disasters/hurricanes/plan.asp

(Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2014b)

If both items have n.d. instead of a year, include a hyphen before the differentiating letter:

Santa Fe College. (n.d.-a). Priority admissions dates. http://www.sfcollege.edu/admissions/index.php?section=priority_dates

(Santa Fe College, n.d.-a)

Santa Fe College. (n.d.-b). SF to UF: A true story. http://www.sfcollege.edu/gators/true-story/index

(Santa Fe College, n.d.-b)

Example 4: No Author

Appeal to authority. (n.d.). Logical Fallacies. https://www.logicalfallacies.org/appeal-to-authority.html

When citing as an in-text citation, you may abbreviate the title to the first few words, in quotations, unless the title is short:

("Appeal to Authority," n.d.)

Source: Publication Manual, 10.16 (examples 111-114); Webpage on a Website References [APA Style]

Only include a full reference to lecture notes or class materials that are behind a login screen (such as Canvas) if you are writing for an audience that will be able to retrieve them. Otherwise, cite it as a personal communication.

Template

Author, A. A. (Year). Title of presentation [Lecture notes or PowerPoint slides]. Website. http://xxxxx

Examples

Preskill, J. (n.d.). Chapter 4: Quantum entanglement [Lecture notes]. Caltech Particle Theory Group. http://www.theory.caltech.edu/people/preskill/ph229/notes/chap4.pdf

(Preskill, n.d.)

Matthews, D. (2019). [Lecture notes on evaluating Internet resources]. Canvas at Santa Fe College. https://courses.sfcollege.edu/login

(Matthews, 2019)

Source: Publication Manual, 10.14 (example 102); Classroom or Intranet ResourcesPowerPoint Slide or Lecture Note References [APA Style]

Photograph

 

Template

Photographer, A. A. (copyright year). Title of photograph [Photograph]. Website. http://xxxxx

Example

Zemlianichenko, A. (1997). Russian President Boris Yeltsin dancing at a rock concert [Photograph]. The Pulitzer Prizes. https://www.pulitzer.org/winners/alexander-zemlianichenko

(Zemlianichenko, 1997)


Artwork

Template

Artist, A. A. (copyright year). Title of work [Medium: Painting, drawing, sculpture, photograph, etc.]. Museum, Location. http://xxxxx

Example

Flack, A. (1988). Islandia, goddess of the healing waters [Sculpture]. Harn Museum of Art, Gainesville, FL, United States. http://www.harn.ufl.edu/collections/8_e.html

(Flack, 1988)

Source: Publication Manual, 10.14 (examples 97 & 101); Clip Art or Stock Image ReferencesArtwork References [APA Style]

Use this for videos posted on websites or blogs, such as YouTube, TED, a news website, etc. If you are citing a direct quotation from a video, you can use the time stamp in place of a page number within the in-text citation (see Example 1).

Template

Author, A. A. [username]. (Year, Month Day). Title of video [Video]. Website. http://xxxxx

Example 1: Full Name

Jones, P. [patrickJMT]. (2009, October 24). Easily memorize the unit circle [Video]. YouTube. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=03McKEg9ASA

(Jones, 2009, 1:15)

Example 2: User Name Only

Vercamath. (2011, July 25). Parallel universes explained [Video]. YouTube. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GWaB3SksOQU

(Vercamath, 2011)

Example 3: TED Talk

Gavagan, E. (2012, April). A story about knots and surgeons [Video]. TED Conferences. https://www.ted.com/talks/ed_gavagan_a_story_about_knots_and_surgeons

(Gavagan, 2012)

TED. (2016, August 30). Suzanne Simard: How trees talk to each other [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Un2yBgIAxYs

(TED, 2016)

Note: If citing from the TED website, list the speaker as the author. If citing from YouTube, list TED (or the account) as the author and include the speaker's name in the title.

Sources: Publication Manual, 9.8 and 10.12 (examples 88 and 90); YouTube Video ReferencesTED Talk References [APA Style]

Template

Author, A. A. (Year). Title of report (Report No. xxx). Website. http://xxxxx

Example 1: Individual Author

Haugen, S. E. (2009). Measures of labor underutilization from the current population survey (Working Paper No. 424). Bureau of Labor Statistics. http://www.bls.gov/osmr/pdf/ec090020.pdf

(Haugen, 2009)

Example 2: Organizational Author

For agencies that are part of a hierarchy, you can use the specific agency instead of including the full hierarchy. If you introduce an abbreviation in your first in-text citation, you may use that abbreviation in subsequent citations.

National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. (2011). Your guide to anemia (NIH Publication No. 11-7629). http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/public/blood/anemia-yg.pdf

First Time: (National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute [NHLBI], 2011)

All Subsequent Times: (NHLBI, 2011)

Note: if the author and website are the same, omit the website.

Example 3: Report Retrieved from Other Site

Matese, M. A. (1997, March). Accountability-based sanctions (Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Fact Sheet No. 58). National Criminal Justice Reference Service. https://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles/fs-9758.pdf

(Matese, 1997)

Source: Publication Manual, 10.4 (examples 50-52); Report by a Government Agency ReferencesReport with Individual Authors References [APA Style]

Template

Author, A. or ScreenName. (Year, Month Day). Title of blog post. Blog Title. http://xxxxx

Please note that for blogs, the post title is formatted normally and the blog title is italicized.

Example 1: Screen Name

Headsman. (2009, August 17). 1909: Madanlal Dhingra, Indian revolutionary. ExecutedToday.com. http://www.executedtoday.com/2009/08/17/1909-madanlal-dhingra-indian-revolutionary/

(Headsman, 2009)

Example 2: Full Name

Wade, L. (2009, August 7). What makes a person homeless? Sociological Images. http://contexts.org/socimages/2009/08/07/what-makes-a-person-homeless/

(Wade, 2009)

Source: Publication Manual, 10.1 (example 17); Blog Post and Blog Comment References [APA Style]

Template

Author, A. A. (Year). Title of entry. In A. Editor (Ed.), Title of reference work (xx ed.). Website. http://xxxxx

Example 1: Individual Author

Masolo, D. (2006). African sage philosophy. In E. N. Zalta (Ed.), The Stanford encyclopedia of philosophy (Fall 2008 ed.). Stanford University. http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/african-sage/

(Masolo, 2006)

Example 2: Group Author

United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. (n.d.) Antisemitism. In Holocaust encyclopedia. Retrieved October 7, 2019, from https://encyclopedia.ushmm.org/content/en/article/antisemitism

(United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, n.d.)

Note: If the author is the same as the website, omit the website component. If an encyclopedia is continuously updated and does not have an archived version, include the retrieval date.

Source: Publication Manual, 10.3 (examples 47-48)

Template

Author, A. A. (Year). Entry name. In Title of online dictionary. Retrieved Day Month, Year, from http://xxxxx.

Most online dictionaries will not have a date; include a retrieval date in this case.

Example

Merriam-Webster. (n.d.). Chapfallen. In Merriam-Webster.com dictionary. Retrieved March 10, 2020, from https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/chapfallen

(Merriam-Webster, n.d.)

West, S. (2007). Online bully. In Urban dictionary. https://www.urbandictionary.com/define.php?term=online%20bully&defid=2639710#2639710

(West, 2007)

Source: Dictionary Entry References [APA Style]

Simply give the URL of the website in the text:

The Lawrence W. Tyree Library website (http://www.sfcollege.edu/library) provides many resources for the students and faculty at Santa Fe College.

Source: Publication Manual, 8.22; Whole Website References [APA Style]

Other Examples

If you are trying to cite a source that is not listed here, and you cannot find guidelines from APA elsewhere, you can create a generic reference. The Publication Manual lists certain elements that should be included in a generic reference:

  • Who / Author - Who is responsible for this work? This can be a person (author or editor) or an organization. 
  • When / Date - When was this work published? A year (Year) is usually acceptable, although you may need to include a month and day (Year, Month Day). If there is no date, use n.d.: (n.d.).
  • What / Title - What is this work called? This is the title of the actual work you are using, not necessarily a larger 'container' like a website. If there is no title, you must create one, and enclose it in square brackets [ ]. You may also wish to clarify the format of the item in square brackets, after the title. Examples could be [Painting], [App], or [Video].
  • Where / Source - Where can I retrieve this work? This can be a book, website (with URL), journal, publication information, or something else.

Template

Author. (Date). Title [Format]. Source.

Source: Publication Manual, 9.4

Personal communication can mean letters, memos, emails, interviews, telephone conversations, etc. that your readers will not be able to access. Since these items are not recoverable, it is not necessary to include in a reference list. Use parenthetical citations in the text only.

Example

(D. J. Matthews, personal communication, July 10, 2009)

Source: Publication Manual, 8.9

For information retrieved from a mobile app (such as an iPhone or Android app), cite as follows:

Example

Wiley. (2015). Psychology spotlight (Version 1.8) [Mobile app]. App Store. https://apps.apple.com/us/app/psychology-spotlight/id503789655

(Wiley, 2015)

Source: Publication Manual, 10.10 (example 79)

Template

Artist, A. A. (copyright year). Title of work [Medium: Painting, drawing, sculpture, photograph, etc.]. Museum, Location. http://xxxxx

Example 1: Physical Work of Art

Da Vinci, L. (1506). Mona Lisa [Painting]. Musée du Louvre, Paris, France.

(Da Vinci, 1506)

Example 2: Artwork Viewed Online

Flack, A. (1988). Islandia, goddess of the healing waters [Sculpture]. Harn Museum of Art, Gainesville, FL, United States. http://www.harn.ufl.edu/collections/8_e.html

(Flack, 1988)

Source: Publication Manual 10.14 (example 97); Artwork References [APA Style]

Only include a full reference to lecture notes or class materials that are behind a login screen (such as Canvas) if you are writing for an audience that will be able to retrieve them. Otherwise, cite it as a personal communication.

Template

Author, A. A. (Year). Title of presentation [Lecture notes or PowerPoint slides]. Website. http://xxxxx

Examples

Preskill, J. (n.d.). Chapter 4: Quantum entanglement [Lecture notes]. Caltech Particle Theory Group. http://www.theory.caltech.edu/people/preskill/ph229/notes/chap4.pdf

(Preskill, n.d.)

Matthews, D. (2019). [Lecture notes on evaluating Internet resources]. Canvas at Santa Fe College. https://courses.sfcollege.edu/login

(Matthews, 2019)

Source: Publication Manual, 10.14 (example 102); Classroom or Intranet ResourcesPowerPoint Slide or Lecture Note References [APA Style]

Template

Author, A. A. (Year, Month Days of Conference). Title of poster session [Poster presentation]. Conference Name, location. http://xxxxx

Example

Rusk, F. (2019, April 10–13). Beyond the research paper: Engaging faculty in alternative information literacy activities and assignments [Poster presentation]. Academic Colleges & Research Libraries, Cleveland, OH, United States.

(Rusk, 2019)

Source: Publication Manual, 10.5 (example 62)

Template

Author, A. A. (Year). Title of doctoral dissertation or master's thesis [Type, Institution]. Database/Archive Name. http://xxxxx

Example 1: Doctoral Dissertation

Chang, S. (2009). Relationship between active leisure and active vacations [Doctoral dissertation, University of Florida]. University of Florida Digital Collections. http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0024249/00001

(Chang, 2009)

Example 2: Master's Thesis

Njuguna, S. W. (2002). Gender education and development: Women's quest for higher education in Kenya [Master's thesis, Morgan State University]. ProQuest Dissertations and Theses Global.

(Njuguna, 2002)

Example 3: Only Available in Print

Saba, D. R. (1987). Segmenting the sports market: A benefit analysis [Unpublished Master's thesis]. Florida State University.

(Saba, 1987)

Sources: Publication Manual, 10.6 (examples 64-66); Published Dissertation or Thesis ReferencesUnpublished Dissertation or Thesis References [APA Style]

Cite conference proceedings based on the format they are published in. If published in a journal, cite as a journal article, if published as a book, cite as a book, etc.

Source: Conference Proceeding References [APA Style]

Template

Name v. Name, Volume Source Page (Court Date). http://xxxxx

Example

Roe v. Wade, 410 U.S. 113 (1973). https://www.oyez.org/cases/1971/70-18

(Roe v. Wade, 1973)

Source: Publication Manual, 11.4 (examples 1-7)

From the Code of Federal Regulations

Template

Exec. Order No. xxxxx, 3 C.F.R. Page (Year). http://xxxxx

Example

Exec. Order No. 13588, 3 C.F.R. 281–282 (2011). https://www.govinfo.gov/app/details/CFR-2012-title3-vol1/CFR-2012-title3-vol1-eo13588

(Exec. Order No. 13588, 2011)

Source: Publication Manual, 11.7 (example 21)

Template

Name, A. A. (Year). Name of patent (Patent Identifier No. xxx). Patent Organization. http://xxxxx

Example

Whitehorn, S. J., & Zehr, G. E. (2006). Electronic media reader (U.S. Patent No. D591,741 S). U.S. Patent and Trademark Office. https://patentimages.storage.googleapis.com/60/7a/8d/d1968eca804a80/USD591741.pdf

(Whitehorn & Zehr, 2006)

Source: Publication Manual, 11.8 (example 22)

Template

Name of the Statute/Act, Title Number Source § Section number(s) (Year of Code Used). http://xxxx

Example 1: Federal Statute

Mental Health Systems Act, 42 U.S.C. § 9401 (1988). https://www.govinfo.gov/app/details/USCODE-2017-title42/USCODE-2017-title42-chap102-sec9401

(Mental Health Systems Act, 1988)

Example 2: State Statute

Florida Patient's Bill of Rights and Responsibilities, Fla. Stat. § 381.026 (1991 & rev. 2017). http://www.leg.state.fl.us/Statutes/index.cfm?App_mode=Display_Statute&URL=0300-0399/0381/Sections/0381.026.html

(Florida Patient's Bill of Rights and Responsibilities, 1991/2017)

This statute was originally codified in 1991 and was last updated in 2017, so both dates are included.

Source: Publication Manual, 11.5 (examples 8-13)

If you wish to cite the U.S. Constitution as a whole, you may simply mention it in your paper without including a citation in the references list.

However, if you are citing a part of the Constitution, you should use the article, amendment, section, and/or clause numbers.

  • Article = art. [use Roman numerals: I, II, III]
  • Amendment = amend. [use Roman numerals: I, II, III]
  • Section = § [use Arabic numbers: 1, 2, 3]
  • Clause = cl. [use Arabic numbers: 1, 2, 3]
  • Preamble = pmbl

Examples

The founding fathers addressed the process by which new states may join the union (U.S. Const. art. I, § 3).

U.S. Const. art. I, § 3.

During prohibition, the sale of liquor was made illegal (U.S. Const. amend. XVIII, repealed 1933).

U.S. Const. amend. XVIII (repealed 1933).

Source: Publication Manual, 11.9 (examples 23-27)

Template

U.N. Charter art. xx, para. xx.

Example

U.N. Charter art. 1, para. 3.

(U.N. Charter art. 1, para. 3)

Source: Publication Manual, 11.9 (example 28)

A secondary source is a source that is cited in another source. APA strongly suggests that you always track down the original source to use and cite. However, if that is not possible, use the following guidelines.

In your references list, include the source you have in hand. In your in-text citation, use the name/date of the original source, plus the words as cited in and then the source you used.

For example, you are using an article by Akerstedt et al., and they cite information from a study by Wing et al.

Text found in Akerstedt et al: "This issue has not been addressed before, but weekend compensatory sleep seems to counteract obesity in children who have short sleep duration during weekdays (Wing, Li, Li, Zhang, & Kong, 2009)."

Akerstedt, T., Ghilotti, F., Grotta, A., Zhao, H., Adami, H.-O., Trolle-Lagerros, Y., & Bellocco, R. (2019). Sleep duration and mortality – Does weekend sleep matter? Journal of Sleep Research, 28(1), e12712. https://doi.org/10.1111/jsr.12712

(Wing et al, 2009, as cited in Akerstedt et al., 2019)

Source: Publication Manual, 8.6; Secondary Sources [APA Style]

Guide License

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